"...Mark how one string,
sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by
mutual ordering,

Resembling sire and child
and happy mother,
Who, all in one, one
pleasing note do sing..."


Shakespeare's SONNET 8
This page contains other moments or DETAILS
from the Arch of CONSTANTINE in Rome.
(Click here, if you wish to turn back to
Page One with full view of Arch and other
                           The Arch of Costantino
 detail from battle relief  from east side
watercolor  8" x 9"
The Arch of Constantine
Page two
José Grave de Peralta
Toroazul Painting and Fine Arts
Back to HOMEpage
Back to INDEX
page    I T A L Y
                            The Arch of Costantino --
with goddess Diana and battle relief from west side
watercolor  8" x 9"
The medallion on the eastern side of the Arch, as seen in this WATERCOLOR, depicts
the goddess Diana guiding her chariot at daybreak and releasing to the sky a nude male
figure, perhaps representing the morning star. In the bottom is a reclining Tiber River
figure, watching the scene.

The horizontal processional frieze of the battle of Constantine against Maxentius ...
was both enthralling and a sort of "battle" for me--- in terms of what it took to create
it in the watercolor medium! By comparison with the other watercolor, however, this
drawing is much more dramatic and almost harsh in its tonalities and shadow
contrasts. In fact, I started it with the "stains" technique, almost pounding the tones
and values onto the white page.

In the medallion, .
The medallion on the western side of the Arch of Constantine originally came from a
monument  from the time of Hadrian (120 A.D. or so). As mentioned on Page One of this
series, Constantine transferred the Hadrianic sculture here and placed it above the long
battle march scene, depicting the victorious end of his battle with rival Maxentius in 313

The round image represents Diana, goddess of the Moon, at dusk, and so the horse's heads
are diving nose-down. A figure in the sky to the right may represent the planet Venus at
dusk. In the lower part of the disc, in typical reclining pose, is the Tiber River.

Below the medallion, in the long horizontal marble relief, we see the return of
Constantine from the battle against Maxentius. In triumph. The proportions of the horses
on the far left are very small in relation to the size of the horse in the center..., and several
other stylistic details like that make this piece already less classical...as though
Medieval. The PROCESSIONAL nature of this image made its translation onto the
watercolor page easier in some ways. There was something very enthralling about the
procession and the sort of "atmosphere" behind the figures, against the back of the marble.
                                                                     The Arch of Costantino
                            detail of two small south side arches with reliefs
on two separate watercolor pages  8" x 9"
The first two WATERCOLORS are studies of
each of the tall narrow sides of the Arch,
containing "tondos" or medallions as well as
wide horizontal reliefs, beneath the tondos.
The two WATERCOLORS below are studies of each of the small ARCHES on the
wide front of the entire monument. These two studies were painted on separate
watercolor sheets, and executed on two consecutive days in August 2010. The two
pages **more or less** compose the entire side of the Arch and suggest the center.
While I was painting these two pieces, the verses quoted below from a favorite
sonnet kept running through my head.  I was struggling to work with three
elements --- the white of the page, ultramarine purple, and yellow ochre -- and to
make them harmonize with each other to produce a unified image.  
CLICK here to move to
Page three
CLICK on any of these other
pages of the series about the
Arch Costantino in Rome
Page 1
Page 5
Page 6
Page 2
Page 7
Page 3
Page 8   
Page 4
Page 9   
Page 10   
Page 1
Page 5
Page 6
Page 2
Page 7
Page 3
Page 8   
Page 4
Page 9   
Page 10